Hampi is an ancient village in the south Indian state of Karnataka. It is a venerable land where mythology and history is inextricably linked. Right from the Marriage of Shiva and Parvati to Kishkindha kand in Ramayana, the land is dotted with mythological references. There are widespread ruins of the Vijayanagar Empire apart from many ancient temples.
The Vijayanagar Empire was based in the Deccan Plateau region in South India. It was established in 1336 by Harihara I and his brother Bukka Raya I of Sangama Dynasty. The empire rose to prominence as a culmination of attempts by the southern powers to ward off Islamic invasions by the end of the 13th century. It lasted until 1646, although its power declined after a major military defeat in 1565 by the combined armies of the Deccan sultanates. The empire is named after its capital city, Vijayanagar, the ruins of which are strewn across Hampi and its surroundings areas. These ruins at Hampi are now a World Heritage Site. Krishnadevaraya was the most prominent and famed ruler of this empire.
The 7th-century Virupaksha Temple is located on the south bank of the River Tungabhadra. Virupaksha temple is dedicated to lord Virupaksha, a form of Shiva. It is believed that this is the location where Shiv and Parvati got married.
This temple was originally built by the Chalukyas in the 7th century AD. Later additions and beautification was done under LakkanaDandesha, a chieftain under the ruler Deva Raya II of the Vijayanagar Empire.
The main entrance is through a majestic Gopuram that is 9 stories high. It is called the Raya Gopuram. This is an example of typical Dravidian architecture having large Gopurams at the entrance. A unique feature of temple structures of the Vijayanagar era is that the base and pillars are made of stone/ granite while the structures above the pillars are made of small red bricks.
When one enters the complex, there is a pillared ceremonial hall on the left and a pillared kitchen complex on the right. Both these halls are still fully functional.
The ceremonial hall.
The temple elephant that has been reared for temple rituals has an area for itself in the complex. The temple elephant gently put a garland over my head and then softly rested its trunk (ensuring no weight on my head) while blessing me. The only thought at that moment was -What a gentle giant.
On the left, one hunter is shown as donating his eyes to Shiv. The carving shows him taking out his eyes with his arrow. Parallel to that image on the extreme right the central image shows the same person when he comes to worship Shiv again. As he has no vision, he uses his feet to locate the Shivling so that he can perform the Pooja. Many other scenes are interesting like Man travelling on a fish, A half human half horse hybrid (concept of Centaurs??) and a snake protecting the Shivaling.
Photography at the main sanctum sanctorum is prohibited. But I could capture the minute, intricate carvings in the Devi’s abode. The exquisite carvings and the level of details at this minute scale have to be seen to be believed.
The pillars that hold this Devi temple is smooth beyond words. It gives an uncanny effect of being machined to get this level of smoothness. This level of dexterity without the use of modern machinery and that too on hard stone, shows the high level of workmanship of this Era.
An interesting feature of this structure is a small hole in its wall that faces the main Gopuram. When sunlight passes through this hole, an inverted image of the gopuram is formed on the wall where the light hits. Much like the effect of a pin- hole camera.
The marriage mandapam was made by the Vijayanagar chieftains. It is majestic in form and architecture. Every pillar is intricately carved from the base to the top. The roof of this marriage hall is full of frescos made out of natural dyes.
A lot of mythological scenes are shown on these panels on the roof. Despite the passage of centuries, these figures are still as resplendent as ever. The details shown are a mute testament to the artistry of the bygone era. It is a pity that there was no system to record anything about these artists and they will remain forever unnamed and unrecognised.
The panel below depicts the divine trinity of Hinduism. It is very rarely that the Creator, Protector and Destroyer (Brahma, Vishnu and Shiv) are shown together in temple architecture.
Just after the Trimurti Panel, another major mythological event, namely marriage of Shiv and Parvati is painted. The panel is shown below. The uniqueness of this painting is that it shows Brahma, Vishnu and other smaller Devtas present in the marriage. Generally Brahma is not shown in temples dedicated to Shiv or Vishnu. In that respect this temple is rare.
Just below the Marriage event the ASHT devas (8 gods – Indra, Varun, Vayu, Yama, Agni etc) are shown.
In a beautifully detailed painting Shiv is shown killing the Tripura Rakshashas.
Another panel depicts one of the stories from indian mythology to this location. The god of love Kamdev was tasked to disrupt the meditation of Shiv so that he can marry Parvati, because it was prophesized that their child will lead the Devas to a victory over the Asuras. Kamdev is depicted as riding a chariot pulled by a Parrot as parrot is supposed to be his mount. He is aiming an arrow of flowers at the meditating form of Shiv. It is said that Shiv got angry and opened his third eye and Kamdev was incinerated. But Shiv had woken up from his trance and then got married to Parvati at this location. There are many location throughout India with temples depicting the legend of marraige in various forms.
Another panel shows one of the central aspects of Hinduism’s discourse, the Dasha Avatars (Ten Incarnations of the Divine Vishnu). As per this concept GOD appears in various forms to protect the world and show the correct path to humanity.
It starts with Matsya Avatar (fish) – Start of life in marine form,
Kurma (Tortoise) – Amphibians
Varaha (Boar) – Mammals and
Narasimha – (half man half lion)
to depicting full humans through the stages of civilisation;
Ram (Establishing rule of Law),
Balaram (agriculture) and
Krishna (Managing the multifarious activities of a great developed society).
The still to come Kalki Avatar is shown as a horse rider – apparently waiting for the correct time to appear and correct the destructive course of humanities’ development.
This mythology is eerily similar to the concept of evolution of animal species and the actual development of human society as a civilisation.
This panel above also shows the story of Draupadi Swayamwar from the Epic Mahabharat, where Arjun wins her hand by successfully aiming at the eye of the Fish dangling from the ceiling.
As we stood in the hall admiring its beauty, marriages were being conducted. There were three separate couples getting married under the same roof. What a beautiful and auspicious place to take the marriage vows.
Beautifully carved pillars ring this enclosure taking up the whole load of the stone roof. The whole inner area is free of obstructions.
Apart from the frescoes on the roof there were carvings on the side depicting similar stories. Here the Shiv Parvati marriage is shown. In the central panel, Brahma and Vishnu are shown on the sides of Bride and Groom. The other Devas are in other panels and other demi gods are depicted on the pillars.
The story of ten incarnations is also beautifully carved in stone here. The sculptures have all the relevant details to identify individual features matching with the unique property of every incarnation.
There are some pillars that depict the miniature structure of the temple architecture. The base, pillars, roof and Gopuram.
This location has been considered holy right from time immemorial. It is the only place of continuous worship from ancient days. This is the only temple in Hampi that has survived the widespread destruction by the Deccan sultanate.
This article of mine was first published in Pragyata.